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Title: Проблеми класифікації правових систем
Other Titles: Проблемы классификации правовых систем
The problems of legal system classifications
Authors: Хаустова, М.Г.
Keywords: правова система
правова сім’я
романо-германська правова сім’я
англо-американська сім’я
релігійна та традиційна правові сім’ї
правовая система
правовая семья
национальная и наднациональная правовые системы
романо-германская правовая семья
англо-американская правовая семья
религиозная и традиционная правовые семьи
legal system
legal family
Romanic-German legal family
Anglo-American legal family Religious and Traditional legal families
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: Хаустова М. Г. Проблеми класифікації правових систем / М. Г. Хаустова // Вісник Національної академії правових наук України : зб. наук. пр. – Харків, 2014. – № 2. – С. 53-65.
Abstract: У статті підкреслюється, що наявність загальних ознак у різних правових системах дозволяє класифікувати їх або поділяти між собою залежно від тих чи інших ознак на окремі групи або правові сім’ї. Проаналізовано різноманітні критерії класифікації, сформульовані теоретиками права. Запропоновано вирізняти головний критерій щодо типізації правових систем на правові сім’ї (ідеологічна складова – правова свідомість та правова культура суспільства), на підставі чого виокремлено романо-германське й англо-американське право, а також дві самостійні сім’ї (типи) релігійного і традиційного права.
В статье подчеркивается наличие общих признаков в различных правовых системах, что позволяет их классифицировать либо разделять между собой в зависимости от тех или иных признаков на отдельные группы или правовые семьи. Проанализированы разнообразные критерии такой классификации, сформулированные теоретиками права. Предложено выделять главный критерий типологизации правовых систем на правовые семьи, а именно – идеологический компонент – правовое сознание и правовая культура общества, на основании чего выделены романо-германское и англо-американское право, а также две самостоятельные семьи (типы) религиозного и традиционного права.
Description: The Legal map of the present – day world is a rather complicated and nonuniform creation. It represents the location and peculiarities of national legal systems. The legal map of the world is characterized by a high level of dynamics, demonstrating the main political and legal changes (the formation of new national legal systems, the influence of integration processes). The simplified approach determines it only as a collection of national legal systems, i.e. legal systems of all existing states. However, besides national and existing with in their boundaries, the so – called subnational legal systems which have substantial autonomy, there are also legal systems, the object of which extends beyond the territory of one state. They can be called transnational. Among transnational legal systems we should mention in the first place the so – called intergovernmental legal systems which are formed by some states according to the international agreements which are concluded. The example of such a system is the legal system of the European Union which is characterized by its own structure and sources of law, the forms of lawmaking and entorcement, the specific mechanisms of the protection of legal regulations against possible violations; the legal system of the Council of Europe etc. The classification of legal systems into national and transnational is aimed at disclosing the nature of a legal system as a creation which is not confined to the boundaries of one state. So, on the legal map of the present - day world it is necessary to recognize national (to the structure of which can be included subnational) and transnational (international and religious) legal systems which exist, copete with each other and provide international law order. The reasons of legal system diversity are first of all connected with the fact that the form and the content of a legal system are directly influenced by historical traditions and conditions of the origin and formation of a historically specific state and law and also the specific character of their evolution and development. legal systems can be formed under the influence of certain historical factors, but they can be transformed under the influence of other factors which had an influence on the course of their development and functioning. To make different legal system more available for a scientific analysis and to determine their status among other legal systems the classification is used. The fact that various legal systems have common features allows to classify them among themselves or divide into individual groups or legal Families depending on one or the other of common features. It is analyzed in the article that the very process of legal system classification of the present is connected with great difficulties. Among them there are the occurrence of some unique features in every national legal system and the unsolved problem of criteria according to which classifications are made. In the meanwhile, the importance of classifications is great because their results don’t make it necessary for the legislators to deal with problems of unification, previous analysis and finding out those legal systems which are more or less inclined to mutual approach to each other, to significant unification or only to external harmonization of their individual views or aspects. Besides, classification allow to provide practical recommendations or proposals as to the partial improvement of legal systems or their total reformation and contributes to the peculiar “exchange of experience» among different legal systems for the sake of their optimal structure and functioning. Different typologies of legal system which were proposed by foreign and native authors have been analyzed in the article. Taking into account different approaches, there was proposed the most optimal criteria of the classification from the author’s point of view, namely : ideological component, legal awareness and legal culture of the society which must become the main criteria of legal system typologization into legal families. The form of all other phenomena of a legal system – legal regulations and their system, sourses of law, peculiarities of enforcement etc. – is the result of definite legal awareness of the society. It was been also noted that in some cases it is possible to mark out other additional criteria which, on the one hand, should express the specific character of legal awareness as brightly as it is possible, and on the other hand-should be simple, instrumental and suitable for comparison. One of the most suitable criteria in this respect is sources of law. Taking into account the mentioned criteria, two independent families of Religious and Traditional law have been marked out together with generally known families of Romanic – German and Anglo-American laws.
Appears in Collections:Наукові статті кафедри теорії держави і права

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